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SBNF

A BNF-style language for writing sublime-syntax files

Details

  • 0.6.4
  • github.​com
  • 8 months ago
  • 2 hours ago
  • 6 months ago

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Readme

Source
raw.​githubusercontent.​com

SBNF

Crate

A BNF-style language for writing sublime-syntax files.

Try it out now on the Live Playground!

SBNF is currently used for SWI-Prolog.

Motivation & Goals

Writing syntax definitions is error prone and the result is hard to maintain. The addition of branch_point, while a great feature, dramatically increases complexity and duplication when used.

SBNF attempts do the following: * Provide a maintainable, declarative language for writing sublime syntax definitions * Compile quickly for fast iteration * Compile to an efficient syntax, comparable to hand-made ones

Installation

Note that in order to use the generated syntax you'll need at minimum Sublime Text build 4077 with support for version 2 of Sublime Syntax.

Sublime Package

Navigate to the Releases page and download the SBNF.sublime-package file. This is a zip file. You'll need to extract the contents of this zip file into the Packages/SBNF folder within the Sublime Text data directory.

Cargo

With rust installed you can download, build and install the latest released version of SBNF using:

$ cargo install sbnfc

Or if you want the latest features, clone this repository, then build and install using:

$ cargo install --path cli

Sublime Syntax

The syntax definition for SBNF is found in sbnf/sbnf.sbnf. To compile it simply run sbnf sbnf/sbnf.sbnf, you can then symlink or copy the sbnf/ directory to your user packages.

Example

The following is a sbnf grammar for a cut-down version of C. It only allows global/local variable declarations, function definitions and simple function calls. Even this cut down version is extremely difficult to parse correctly with the required meta.function and meta.function-call scopes, as both function definitions and function calls require branch points.

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
NAME = `simplec`

prototype : ( ~comment )* ;

comment : '(//+).*\n?'{comment.line, 1: punctuation.definition.comment} ;

main : ( variable-declaration | function-definition )* ;

IDENTIFIER = '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'

function-definition{meta.function}
: type
  IDENTIFIER{entity.name.function}
  `(`
  `)`
  block
;

block{meta.block} : '{' statement* '}' ;

statement : variable-declaration
          | value ';'
          | block
          ;

variable-declaration : type IDENTIFIER{variable} ( '=' value )? ';' ;

type : IDENTIFIER{storage.type} ;

value : '[0-9]+'{constant.numeric}
      | function-call
      ;

# Function calls don't have arguments :)
function-call{meta.function-call}
: IDENTIFIER{variable.function meta.path} `(` `)` ;

The above grammar compiles to the following:

%YAML 1.2
---
# http://www.sublimetext.com/docs/syntax.html
version: 2
name: simplec
scope: source.simplec
contexts:
  # Rule: block
  block|0:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.block.simplec
    - match: '{'
      scope: meta.block.simplec
      set: block|1
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: block
  block|1:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.block.simplec
    - include: include!block@1
    - match: '[0-9]+'
      scope: meta.block.simplec constant.numeric.simplec
      push: [block|meta, statement|0]
    - match: '{'
      scope: meta.block.simplec meta.block.simplec
      push: [block|meta, block|1]
    - match: '}'
      scope: meta.block.simplec
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: block
  #  For branch point 'block@1'
  block|2|block@1:
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: meta.block.simplec variable.simplec
      set: [block|meta, variable-declaration|2]
    - match: '\S'
      fail: block@1
  # Rule: block
  #  For branch point 'block@1'
  block|3|block@1:
    - match: '\('
      scope: meta.block.simplec meta.function-call.simplec
      set: [block|meta, statement|0, function-call|1]
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Meta scope context for block
  block|meta:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.block.simplec
    - match: ''
      pop: true
  # Rule: function-call
  function-call|0:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.function-call.simplec
    - match: '\('
      scope: meta.function-call.simplec
      set: function-call|1
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: function-call
  function-call|1:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.function-call.simplec
    - match: '\)'
      scope: meta.function-call.simplec
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  function-call|2|block@1:
    - meta_include_prototype: false
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: meta.function-call.simplec variable.function.simplec meta.path.simplec
      push: block|3|block@1
      pop: true
  # Rule: function-definition
  function-definition|0:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.function.simplec
    - match: '\)'
      scope: meta.function.simplec
      set: [function-definition|meta, block|0]
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Meta scope context for function-definition
  function-definition|meta:
    - meta_content_scope: meta.function.simplec
    - match: ''
      pop: true
  # Include context for branch point block@1
  include!block@1:
    - match: '(?=\b[A-Za-z_]+\b)'
      branch_point: block@1
      branch:
        - type|2|block@1
        - function-call|2|block@1
  # Include context for branch point main@1
  include!main@1:
    - match: '(?=\b[A-Za-z_]+\b)'
      branch_point: main@1
      branch:
        - type|0|main@1
        - type|1|main@1
  # Rule: main
  main:
    - include: include!main@1
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
  # Rule: main
  #  For branch point 'main@1'
  main|0|main@1:
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: variable.simplec
      push: main|2|main@1
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      fail: main@1
  # Rule: main
  #  For branch point 'main@1'
  main|1|main@1:
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: meta.function.simplec entity.name.function.simplec
      push: main|3|main@1
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: main
  #  For branch point 'main@1'
  main|2|main@1:
    - match: '='
      set: variable-declaration|0
    - match: ';'
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      fail: main@1
  # Rule: main
  #  For branch point 'main@1'
  main|3|main@1:
    - match: '\('
      scope: meta.function.simplec
      set: function-definition|0
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: prototype
  prototype:
    - match: '(//+).*\n?'
      scope: comment.line.simplec
      captures:
        1: punctuation.definition.comment.simplec
  # Rule: statement
  statement|0:
    - match: ';'
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  type|0|main@1:
    - meta_include_prototype: false
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: storage.type.simplec
      push: main|0|main@1
      pop: true
  type|1|main@1:
    - meta_include_prototype: false
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: meta.function.simplec storage.type.simplec
      push: main|1|main@1
      pop: true
  type|2|block@1:
    - meta_include_prototype: false
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: storage.type.simplec
      push: block|2|block@1
      pop: true
  # Rule: variable-declaration
  variable-declaration|0:
    - match: '[0-9]+'
      scope: constant.numeric.simplec
      set: variable-declaration|1
    - match: '\b[A-Za-z_]+\b'
      scope: meta.function-call.simplec variable.function.simplec meta.path.simplec
      set: [variable-declaration|1, function-call|0]
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: variable-declaration
  variable-declaration|1:
    - match: ';'
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true
  # Rule: variable-declaration
  variable-declaration|2:
    - match: '='
      set: variable-declaration|0
    - match: ';'
      pop: true
    - match: '\S'
      scope: invalid.illegal.simplec
      pop: true

Usage

A SBNF file contains two types of elements: clauses and rules. Clauses provide meta-data for the syntax such as the file extensions, as well as some meta-programming. Rules are the bnf-style rules that define the parsing and scoping of the grammar.

Comments in SBNF start with a # and end at the next newline.

See sbnf.sbnf for a full example grammar.

Clauses

Clauses are in the form <name> <parameters> = <value>. The name must follow SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE. The following names are reserved for meta-data:

  • NAME: The name of the syntax. This defaults to the base-name of the sbnf file.
  • EXTENSIONS: A space-separated list of file extensions. Equivalent to file_extensions in sublime-syntax.
  • FIRST_LINE: A regex for matching the first line of a file. Equivalent to first_line_match in sublime-syntax.
  • SCOPE: The default scope for the grammar. This defaults to source. followed by the lowercased name of the syntax.
  • SCOPE_POSTFIX: A postfix appended to all scopes in the grammar (excluding the SCOPE clause). This defaults to the name lowercased. Can be left empty to leave out the postfix.
  • HIDDEN: Whether the syntax will be shown in the menu in Sublime Text.

Example:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
NAME = `SBNF`
EXTENSIONS = `sbnf`
# Don't need this, as this is already the default
# SCOPE = `source.sbnf`

Rules

Rules are in the form <name> <parameters> <options> : <expression> ;. The name must follow kebab-case.

Like sublime-syntax files, SBNF grammars have two entry points: main, prototype. They behave identically to those in sublime-syntax files. Only rules used directly or indirectly from an entry point are compiled.

Rules can optionally have parameters and options. Parameters are used for meta-programming and options are used for sublime-syntax specific options.

Examples:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
a : 'a' ;
b{source.b} : 'b' ;
c[S] : 'c'{#[S]} ;
d[S]{text.d} : a b c[S] ;

Expressions

Expressions may take any of the following forms:

  • `<literal>` <options>: A terminal matching text literally.
  • '<regex>' <options>: A terminal matching text according to a regex.
  • <identifier> <arguments>: A non-terminal matching another rule.
  • <expr> | <expr>: An alternation of expressions. The grammar matches either the left or right expression. This can be used as a list, eg: 'a' | 'b' | 'c'.
  • <expr> <expr>: A concatenation of expressions. The grammar matches the left expression followed by the right expression. This can be used as a list, eg: 'a' 'b' 'c'.
  • (<expr>): A grouping.
  • <expr>?: An optional expression. The grammar matches nothing or the expression.
  • <expr>*: A repeating expression. The grammar matches the expression any number of times, including 0.
  • ~<expr>: A passive expression. The grammar matches any text until the expression matches.

Options

Options come in the following form: {<param>, <key>: <value>}. <param>, <key> or <value> may contain any text except ,, : or }. There may be any number of options given, as allowed by whatever the options are for. When there are no options the {} are optional.

The following options are allowed for rules:

  • <meta-scope>: The meta-scope of the rule. Equivalent to meta_scope or meta_content_scope in sublime-syntax.

Literal and regex terminals are allowed the following arguments:

  • <scope>: The scope of the terminal.
  • <capture>: <scope>: The scope for a regex capture group. <capture> must be an integer.

Parameters

Parameters for rules and clauses take the form: [<value>, <value>]. <value> may be either a regex terminal, a literal terminal or an identifier. The same name may be used for rules/clauses with different sets of parameters.

A rule with parameters is instantiated when it is used. Matching is based on the type and value of each parameter. Terminal arguments are matched based on regex equivalence, while rule arguments are matched by name.

An identifier that does not reference a rule is a free variable unique to the rule's scope. It matches any argument and may be passed in and or interpolated.

A variable may be interpolated using the following syntax: #[]. This can be done inside any terminal or inside options.

Examples:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
main
: a['a'] # instantiates rule 1
| a[a]   # instantiates rule 2
| a['b'] # instantiates rule 3
| b['b'] # error: Ambiguous instantiation
;

# Rule 1.
a['a'] : 'a' ;

# Rule 2.
a[a] : 'a' ;

# Rule 3.
a[A] : 'a' ;

b[A] : 'a' ;
b[B] : 'b' ;

There also exists a set of global arguments which are passed in from the command line. These arguments are in the same form as other arguments and should be put at the top of the file. They may only consist of variables and are available globally, including for clauses.

Examples:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
# Declares a single global parameter
[TYPE]

# Can be used in clauses
NAME = 'd-#[TYPE]'

# As well as rules
main : '#[TYPE]' ;
# 'dmd' is passed to TYPE when compiled
$ sbnf syntax.sbnf dmd

Include/Embed

SBNF also has support for including/embedding other sublime syntaxes. This can only be done on a literal or regex terminal expression with a postfix of %include[<with_prototype>]{<syntax>} for including a syntax or %embed[<regex>]{<syntax>} for an embed.

Note that these translate directly to the sublime syntax include/embed functionality and thus have the same limitations.

Examples:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
# This is a basic implementation of the html script tag embedding the javascript
# syntax.
script
: '<script>'{tag.begin.script}
  %embed['</script>']{scope:source.js, embedded.js, 0: tag.end.script}
;
# The above translates to the following context
script:
  - match: '<script>'
    scope: tag.begin.script.example
    embed: scope:source.js
    embed_scope: embedded.js.example
    escape: '</script>'
    escape_captures:
      0: tag.end.script.example
    pop: true
  - match: '\S'
    scope: invalid.illegal.example
Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
# This is a basic implementation of a regex string. It has a prototype rule that
# extends the regex syntax with an escape sequence for the string.

regex-prototype{include-prototype: false}
: ( ~`\'`{constant.character.escape} )*
  # A lookahead is required here, as otherwise we would only pop one context
  # The same is required in a sublime-syntax file
  ~'(?=\')'
;

regex-string{string.quoted}
: `'`{punctuation.definition.string.begin}
  %include[regex-prototype]{scope:source.regexp}
  `'`{punctuation.definition.string.end}
;
# The above translates to the following contexts
regex-string:
  - meta_content_scope: string.quoted.example
  - match: ''''
    scope: string.quoted.example punctuation.definition.string.begin.example
    set: [regex-string|0, regex-string|1]
  - match: '\S'
    scope: invalid.illegal.example
regex-string|0:
  - meta_content_scope: string.quoted.example
  - match: ''''
    scope: string.quoted.example punctuation.definition.string.end.example
    pop: true
  - match: '\S'
    scope: invalid.illegal.example
    pop: true
regex-string|1:
  - meta_include_prototype: false
  - match: ''
    set: scope:source.regexp
    with_prototype:
      - include: regex-prototype|0
regex-prototype|0:
  - meta_include_prototype: false
  - match: '\\'''
    scope: constant.character.escape.example
  - match: '(?='')'
    pop: true

Command Line

$ sbnf --help
SBNF compiler 0.4.0

USAGE:
    sbnf [FLAGS] [OPTIONS] <INPUT> [ARGS]...

FLAGS:
    -g               Compile with debug scopes
    -h, --help       Prints help information
    -q               Do not display warnings
    -V, --version    Prints version information

OPTIONS:
    -o <output>        The file to write the compiled sublime-syntax to. Defaults to $INPUT.sublime-syntax if left out. Use a single dash `-` to write to stdout instead.

ARGS:
    <INPUT>      The SBNF file to compile
    <ARGS>...    Arguments to pass to the main and prototype rules

Limitations

Regex Equivalence

When determining whether to create a branch point in the sublime-syntax, SBNF has to consider whether regexes overlap. Take the following example:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
main : 'aa?'{scope1} 'b'
     | 'a'{scope2} 'c'
     ;

The regexes 'aa?' and 'a' both match a, meaning a branch point would be required to correctly parse this syntax. SBNF does not create a branch point here. Due to the complexities of regex, a branch point is only created with equivalent regexes. Rewriting the example to work as expected with SBNF yields the following:

Error: language “sbnf” is not supported
main : 'aa'{scope1} 'b'
     | 'a'{scope1} 'b'
     | 'a'{scope2} 'c'
     ;

This is unlikely to change in the future, as SBNF does not make any attempt to understand any regexes.

TODO

  • Fix known edge cases in compiler. In a couple places we panic!() instead of providing an implementation.
  • Add warnings for when branches are used in non-popping loops.
  • Fix infinite loop/recursion when rule refers to itself